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Primary Insomnia Disorder

The predominant complaint of Primary Insomnia Disorder is difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, or nonrestorative sleep, for at least 1 month.

The sleep disturbance (or associated daytime fatigue) causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

The sleep disturbance does not occur exclusively during the course of Narcolepsy, Breathing-Related Sleep Disorder, Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder, or a Parasomnia.

The disturbance does not occur exclusively during the course of another mental disorder such as Major Depressive Disorder, or delirium.

The disturbance is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition.

    During a Typical Episode

    Individuals with Primary Insomnia most often report a combination of difficulty falling asleep and intermittent wakefulness during sleep. The specific type of sleep complaint often varies over time. For instance, individuals who complain of difficulty falling asleep at one time may later complain of difficulty maintaining sleep, and vice versa.

    Less commonly, individuals with Primary Insomnia may complain only of nonrestorative sleep—that is, feeling that their sleep was restless, light, or of poor quality. Not all individuals with nighttime sleep disturbances are distressed or have functional impairment.

      Diagnostic criteria summarized from:

      American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.


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